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The regional interactive encyclopedic portal «Bashkortostan»
Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Bashkortostan State autonomous institution of science of the Republic of Bashkortostan Bashkir encyclopedia


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SALAVAT       YULAYEV    [16.6.1754 (according to other data, 1752), Derevnya Tekeyevo of Shaitan‑Kudeyskaya Volost of Siberian Doroga — 26.9.1800, Baltiysky Port of Estland Gub., now Paldiski, Estonia], National Hero of the Bashkir people, participant of the Peasant War of 1773— 75, associate of Ye.I.Pugachyov and a Poet. Son of Yulay Aznalin. In 1771—72 served as Starshina (Head) of Shaytan‑Kudeyskaya Volost. In November 1773, joined the Uprising. Between January—March 1774, he was one of the leaders of the uprising in the Perm and Northern part of Ufa provinces. In January, the S.Yu. brigade (800 people) conquered Krasnoufimsk Fortress of Ufa Province without a battle; participated (along with 4 thous. soldiers) in the siege of Kungur of Perm Province, between February—March — in battles against government troops near Krasnoufimsk Fortress and Sarapul of Kazan Gub., in May — near Verkhniye Simsky Plant, Ayskaya Pier of Aylinskaya Volost of the Sib. Doroga, in June — near the Verkhniye Kigi (Kiginsky Raion of the RB) and Urazmetevo derevnyas, Tyrnaklinskaya Volost of Tyrnaklinskaya Doroga, near Achitskaya Fortress (now PGT Achit of Sverdlovsk Obl.), and in Osa seizure. In June, Pugachyov appointed S.Yu. as Brigadir. Since July, S.Yu. led the rebel movement in Bashkortostan. In November, he was captured by the government team. After the investigation (November 1774—July 1775) held in Ufa, Kazan, Moscow and Orenburg S.Yu., together with his father, was committed to whip punishment (he suffered 175 strokes) and branded with signs “Z” (“zlodey” — “villain”), “B” (“buntovshchik” — “rebel”), “I” (“izmennik” — “traitor”) on his forehead and cheeks. In October, he was exiled to the Baltiysky Port for a lifetime. Poetic heritage of S.Yu. includes approx. 500 lines of written or oral texts. S.Yu. had a significant impact on the development of the Bashkir literature. In the RF and RB, an administrative raion, a city, streets, a hockey club, boats and caves, etc. are named after S.Yu. Museums in Derevnya Maloyaz of Salavatsky Raion of the RB and in Paldiski are opened in honour of S.Yu. There are monuments dedicated to S.Yu. S.P.Zlobin dedicated his novel to S.Yu. Also, there are an opera, and the Salavat Yulayev feature film, a ballet, documentary films, performances, songs and other works of art, literature and folklore named after S.Yu. In the RB, there are the S.Yu. Award and the Order of S.Yu. (ref. State Awards). The Salavat Yulayev encyclopaedia has also been published.

Publication date: 26.10.2020
Last updated: 14.04.2021